DIAGNOSIS: Periodic Limb Movements in Sleep

Periodic limb movements during sleep (PLMS) are involuntary, repetitive, stereotypic, short-lasting segmental movements of the lower and sometimes upper limbs. These are commonly described as consisting of a dorsiflexion of the big toe with fanning of the small toes, accompanied by flexion at…


Effects of Caffeine on Sleep and Wakefulness: An Update

It is a daily observation that in public transport, at home in the evening, and at times when people are expected to be fully awake, they suffer from a continuous sleep deprivation and too low a level of wakefulness. Data from laboratory studies show that a shortage of nocturnal…

Periodic Limb Movement Disorder – Causes, Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment and Ongoing care

Sleep-related movement disorder with these features (1,2)[A]:

Episodes of periodic limb movements (PLMs) during sleep
Movements consist of bilateral ankle and toe dorsiflexion, sometimes accompanied by knee and hip flexion.
Arm or more generalized involvement occurs less…

Does Poor Sleep Quality in Late Life Compromise Cognition and Accelerate Progression of the Degenerative Dementias?

Cycles of sleep and wakefulness begin in utero and persist throughout life. As such, sleep is both a personally familiar experience and a biologically essential activity. At the same time, the fundamental links between sleep, health, and disease remain elusive. Several decades of sleep research…

How to manage stress – 10 tips about Self-care to reduce stress

1. Get More Sleep
Sleep deprivation is chronic in our culture. In the United States, a National Sleep Foundation survey revealed that two out of three people get less than the recommended eight hours of sleep per night; of that group, one out of three gets less than six hours of sleep. Sleep…
How to manage stress – 10 tips about Self-care to reduce stress